Saturday, 21 January 2017

ALLIUM SATIVUM

Allium sativum belongs to family alliaceae. It's local name is Lehson or Garlic. It contains alliuin and alliicin etc. It;s main function is to reduce Blood Pressure. It also reduces Cholesterol. It uses in antibiotic and it is also ingredient of dishes.


ALLIUM SATIVUM Pharmacognostic Features


B.O: Allium Sativum
Family: Alliaceae
Local name: Lehson
English name: Garlic
Part used: plant’s bulb
Habitat: Originated in mountainous region in central Asia.


Constituents


Sulphur containing compounds (Allicin,Alliin and Ajoene) Enzymes, volatile oils, vitamins,  Minerals.

MOA


The final mechanism of garlic associated vasodilation is its ability to increase the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). It is known that red blood cells will produce H2S when provided with sulfur containing products.  As mentioned earlier, allicin is degraded when taken with water to produce organic polysulfides.

These garlic derived polysulfides contribute the sulfur needed by the RBC to increase the production of H2S. Upon its production, H2S will bind to and activate vascular KATP channels, thereby resulting in hyperpolarization of the vascular smooth muscle cells. Hyperpolarization of these cells causes vasodilation or vascular relaxation that facilitates a reduction in blood pressure.

Uses


        Antibiotic
        Reduces Cholesterol and B.P
        May prevent stomach cancer.
        Ingredient in many dishes.
        Ecological Pesticide.

Side Effects

  • When taken by mouth it can cause: Bad breath, a burning sensation in mouth or stomach.
  • Heart burn
  • Gas
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Body Odor
  • Diarrhea and can increase risk of bleeding.

Punica Granatum

Punica Granatum belongs to family lythraceae and it is common name say pomegranate or anar. It contains ellagitannis, anthocyanidins etc. It is anithyperlipidemic. other uses are anti inflamatory and anti oxidant.


Punica Granatum Pharmacognostic features


B.O: Punica granatum
Family: Lythraceae
Local name: Anar
English name:  Pomegranate
Parts used: Seeds, Flowers
Habitat:  In southwest zones of  Asia, like hot, dry summers can be damaged in cold temprature.

Constituents


Ellagitannins
Anthocyanidins
Anthocyanins
Flavonols and flavones ellagic acid, punicic acid, flavonoids, esterogenic 





Morphology


leaves: dark green 3 to 7 cm long and 2cm broad Flowers
Bright red with 5 to 8 petals
Fruit:  2 to 5 inches wide tough, leathery skin

MOA


It is used as antihyperlipidemic it decrease the cholesterol absorption, increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, had a beneficial effect on enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism. It significantly reduce LDL and improve HDL cholesterol ratios.

Contraindications: not given to patients of low B.P  avoide to take before surgury.

Uses


  • Anti inflammatory
  • Anti oxidant
  • Anti carcinogenic
  • Anti Hyperlipidemia
  • Anti Hypertension 

Monday, 9 January 2017

Convallaria majalis

Convallaria majalis belongs to family liliaceae,it’s local name is Fairy cups or May lilly. It contains constituents glycosides, convallarin, saponins, flavonoids, asparagine etc. It increases the force and power of the heart beat without increasing the amount of oxygen. It causes arteries to dilate and acts also as diuretic. So it can be used in heart failure,fluid retention,kidney stones and for many other puroses.


Convallaria majalis Pharmacognostic Features



B.O: Convallaria majalis
Family: Liliaceae
Habitat: Northern hemisphere but certain varieties also found in American, Japan, & China.
English name: Lilly of valley
Local name: May lilly, Fairy cups
Parts used: Roots and dried flowers

Constituents

  • Glycosides:
  • Convallarin
  • Convallamarin
  • Convallotoxin
  • Convallalotoxol
  • Convalloside

It also contains

  • Saponins
  • Convallaric acid
  • Asparagin
  • Flavonoids


Mode Of Action

The convallarin increase force and power of the heart beat without increasing the amount of oxygen required by the heart muscles, thereby increasing the efficiency of the heart. The flavonoids encourage the arteries to dilate while the asparagine act as diuretic.

Read more Pharmacy

Uses of Convallamarin

·      Heart failure
·      Irregular heart beat
·      UTIs
·      Kidney stones
·      Epilepsy
·      Fluid retention(edema)
·      Stroke
·      Eye infection(conjunctivitis) 

Saturday, 7 January 2017

Urgenia indica

Urgenia Indica belongs to family liliaceae. It containts consstituents scillaren A & B. It also contains other constituents. Scillaren has positive ionotopic effect on heart which has positive ionotropic effect on heart which increase cardiac contractility. Therefore it is used as cardiac stimulant, diuretic, expectorant and for cough treatment.


Urgenia indica Pharmacognostic features


B.O: Urgenia maritime
Family: Liliaceae
Common name: Jangali pyaz
English name: Indian squill, true  squill
Part used: dried bulb

Constituents

It contain at least two glycosides
  • Scillaren-A and    Scillaren-B.
  • It also contain:
  • Flavonoids
  • Quercetin
  • Derivatives
  • Sinstrin
  • Calcium oxalate             

MOA


Scillaren A induce the quiet clear positive ionotropic effect that increase the strength of muscular contraction. The positive ionotropic effect result most likely by inhibiting Na+/k+ ATPase results in an increased intracellular conc. of Na+. This increase in intracellular Na causes the Na/Ca exchanger to pump Na in cell and K out of cell. This leads to an increase in cytoplasmic Ca conc., which improves cardiac contractility. This drug also increases urinary sodium excretion rate and significant reduction in urinary potassium excretion rate.

Uses of Urgenia indica

  • Cardiac stimulant
  • Diuretic
  • Expectorant
  • Cough treatment
  • Chronic bronchitis asthma
  • The extract of bulb also shows anti-cancer activity.
  • Side effect
  • Anxiety
  • Tremors
  • Nausea
  • Allergic reaction
  • Large doses are emetic

Pharmacognostic features of Urgenia indica


  • B.O: Digitallis lanata, Digitallis purpura
  • Family: Scrophulariaceae
  • Habitat: In partial sunlight to  deep shade, rocky mountains of  Asia
  • Common Name:  Foxglove
  • Part used: Leaves
  • Constituents:
  • Digitoxin
  • Digoxin
  • Gitalin
  • Gitoxin
  • Glycosides

MAO:


Digitalis works by inhibiting Na-K ATPase, results in an increased intracellular conc.of Na+ and thus a decreased concentration gradient across the cell membrane.
This increase in intracellular Na causes the Na/Ca exchanger to pump Na in cell and K out of cell. This leads to an increase in cytoplasmic Ca conc., which improves cardiac contractility.
Dose: daily doses of 0.125 to  0.25 mg

Uses:


  • Heart failure
  • For atrial fibrillation
  • Anti arrythmic agent.