Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Sample Case Study Pharmaceuticals

Prepare an ER diagram by using following statements

1. Dealership may keeps the stock of the cars. cars having attributes of Car id , model no, manufacturing years.
2. Cars transport through the shipment. Attributes area no etc.
3. shippers has a contract with manufacturer.
4. Attributes of manufacturer license no.
5. Manufacturer provide licensed to the dealers.

Prepare an ER diagram of multinational organization deals with products.

1. Company has no. of branches all around the country.
2.Branches has its own employee having attribute emp id, name , address etc.
3. Employee sale the product and got commission against the product.
4. Product attributes are code, quantity and price.

Prepare an ER diagram of Bus Company.

A Bus Company owns a number of busses. Each bus is allocated to a particular route,  although some routes may have several busses. Each route passes through a number of  town.

One or more drivers are allocated to each stage of a route, which corresponds to a journey through some or all of the towns on a route. Some of the towns have a garage where busses are kept and each of the busses are identified by the registration number and can carry different numbers of passengers, since the vehicles vary in size and can be single or double-decked. Each route is identified by a route number and information is available on the average number of passengers carried per day for each route. Drivers have an employee number, name, address, and sometimes a telephone number.”

Prepare An ER diagram of University.

A lecturer, identified by his or her number, name and room number, is responsible for organizing a number of course modules. Each module has a unique code and also a name and each module can involve a number of lecturers who deliver part of it. A module is composed of a series of lectures and because of economic constraints and common sense, sometimes lectures on a given topic  can be part of more than one module. A lecture has a time, room and date and is delivered by a lecturer and a lecturer may deliver more than one lecture. Students, identified by number and name, can attend lectures and a student must be registered for a number of modules. We also store the date on which the student first registered for that module. Finally, a lecturer acts as a tutor for a number of students and each student has only one tutor.”

Monday, 20 February 2017

History of Telecommunication in Pakistan

In 1990, Pakistan introduced its first mobile phone service called “Paktel”. After eleven years in January 2001, a new cellular company with GSM technology came into the market and they named it Ufone. The government of Pakistan granted them the license of Pak Telecom mobile limited to operate GSM 9000 all Around Pakistan.

Initial Coverage of Mobile in Pakistan

Ufone succeeded to establish itself in the market by providing quality service at low rates. After it’s opening, initially they started their service in major cities like Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore and on major highways. Later the service expanded to other major cities like Peshawar, Quetta and different towns.

Initial Investment for Telecommunication in Pakistan

Ufone invested around $ 65 million to setup its modern technical infrastructure to provide high quality crystal clear voice and fast data transmission. Ufone targeted the middle class, by introducing low rates and different packages with Urdu names like Jazba etc to attracted lower and middle class people. Ufone has expanded its customer support in a very organized manner with a planned network of dealers, outlets for people convenient. Ufone is committed to care for its customers even after they have acquired a new connection. Ufone not only focused on the technical capabilities, but to provide subscribers a convenient to get connections and services. Ufone recently started GPRS through which users can connect themselves to the global village via Internet, also introduced multimedia messaging services and worldwide SMS at flat rates. Not only SMS but also provides Ufone Info service through which user can get latest information about news, sports, religion, horoscope, stock exchange etc even live sports updates.

The tariff packages have been designed keeping in mind the requirements of every segment of the society may that be a housewife, a taxi driver, a trader or a student. Ufone started its operation from Islamabad on 29th January 2001. Cellular industry performance in Pakistan before the launch of Ufone was quite dismal, with one of the lowest population penetration rates in the Whole region. 

Ufone’s strategy from the day one was to change this scenario and ensure that mobile phones are turned into an everyday business and personal communication tools for all. This approach brought about a revolution in the market; increasing its size five fold in a mere two years. Ufone’s own performance in these two years has been exemplary, as it surpassed all financial and marketing goals. Despite Ufone’s strategy to provide a high standard of service rather than increasing subscriber base without capacity, it has achieved a substantial market share in a market ten years older than itself. 

Sunday, 19 February 2017

Problem solving by jigsaw puzzles

Jigsaw (teaching technique)

The jigsaw technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the (jigsaw) puzzle. It was designed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson to help weaken racial cliques in forcibly integrated schools.


Traditional toys like jigsaw puzzles boosts children's problem solving skills.


Games like jigsaw puzzles improve cognitive skills and spatial awareness.


Psychologists from Rhodes College in Memphis find playbox treats improve cognitive skills and spatial awareness. Children who play with old fashioned toys like jigsaws to building blocks will become better equipped to deal with problems from maths to map-reading, according to new research. Traditional playbox treats, which also includes board games, improves cognitive skills, the areas of the brain associated with what psychologists call spatial awareness. These are the everyday skills that involve solving logic - from navigating one's way around a busy street to how to load a dishwasher or even putting flatpack furniture together. Jamie Jirout said: "Spatial play specifically is related to children's spatial reasoning skills.
"This is important because providing children with access to spatial play experiences could be a very easy way to boost spatial development." In particular it could be used to boost those children currently underperforming in maths at school.

Instructions before Problem solving by jigsaw puzzles

The technique splits classes into mixed groups to work on small problems that the group collates into a final outcome. For example, an in-class assignment is divided into topics. Students are then split into groups with one member assigned to each topic. Working individually, each student learns about his or her topic and presents it to their group.
Next, students gather into groups divided by topic. Each member presents again to the topic group. In same-topic groups, students reconcile points of view and synthesize information. They create a final report. Finally, the original groups reconvene and listen to presentations from each member. The final presentations provide all group members with an understanding of their own material, as well as the findings that have emerged from topic-specific group discussion.

Apparatus and Material




Students in jigsaw classrooms ("jigsaws") showed a decrease in prejudice and stereotyping, liked in-group and out-group members more, showed higher levels of self-esteem, performed better on standardized exams, liked school more, reduced absenteeism, and mixed with students of other races in areas other than the classroom compared to students in traditional classrooms ("trades").
Finally, jigsaw classrooms decrease absenteeism, and they even seem to increase children's level of empathy (i.e., children's ability to put themselves in other people's shoes). The jigsaw technique thus has the potential to improve education dramatically in a multi-cultural world by revolutionizing the way children learn.

Friday, 17 February 2017

Medicines - Brands - Indications - Contradictions - Side Effects

Brand name & API
Side Effects
Drug Interactions
Forsteo (Teriparatide)
Headache, fatigue, depression, Nausea
Hypercalcemia pregnancy

Ferinject (FerriceCarboxy maltose)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Hypersensitivity, reactions, dizzing, hypophosphatemia
Pregnancy, Neonates

Menogan (Menotrophin)
Cryptochidism, Male infertility, super Ovulation
Pulmonary edema, Gynacomastia, Thromboembolism
Testicular tumors, Ovarian dysgenesis, Tubal Disease

Epotin Recombinant human erythropetin
Bone marrow transplantation, Anemia
Hyper Kalemia, Grandmalseizure, Thrombosis
Erythroidleukemia,Uneartraled hypertension

Botox Botulium Toxin Type A
Anal Fissure, Hemifatal Spasm , MusularSparm
Vertical misalignmenl of eyes, Laryngeal Edema
Myasthenia gravis pregnancy, Bleeding diathesis

Pharmatrexate (Mthotrexate)
Breast Cancer, Choriocarcinoma, Endometriosis etc
Hepatotoxicity, Coma, Seizures, Thrombosis
Erythroid leukemia, Uncontrolled Hypertension.

Epogen (recombinant human erythropoietin)
Bone marrow transplantation, Anemia
Hyperkalemia, Seizures, Thrombosis
Erythroid leukemia, Uncontrolled Hypertension

Grammaraas (Immuno globulin)
Autoimmune diseases Hepatitis, Measles
Nausea ,Vomiting, Myalgia, Urticaria
Thrombocytopenia IGA deficiency

Engenix-B (Hepatitis.B Vaccine)
Hepatitis B Prophylaxis
Convulsions, Neuropathy, Angioedema
Hypersensitivity accuke severe febrile illness

Rotavix (Rotavirus Vacine)
Gastro-intestinal infections
Irritability, vomiting, Anorexia
Immune System weakness

Rhogam (RHO (D) Immunoglobulin)
Erythroblastosisfetalis,Rhesus blood mismatch
Splenomegaly Hyperthermia, lethargy
Anaphylactic reactions, Hypersensitivity

Vaxigrip (Influenza Vaccine)
Influenza prophylaxis
Convulsions, Thrombocytopenia
Hypersensitivity, thrombocytopenia

Thursday, 16 February 2017

Industrial Pharmacy Semisolids

Pharmaceutical semisolids are medicinal topicals intended for surface application either on the skin or mucous membrane.They include Ointments, Pastes, Creams, Emulsions, Gels & Rigid Foams. Their common property is to cling to the surface of their application for reasonable duration before they are washed or worn off. The adhesion is due to their plastic Rheological behavior.


Ointments are Semisolid preparations intended for external application to the skin or mucous membrane. Ointments contain medicament  or a mixture of medicaments usually dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base.The type of ointment base used as a vehicle for drug is selected for optimum delivery of the drug & also to contribute emolliency or other quasi-medicinal qualities.

Ointment bases

The USP recognizes four general classes of ointments:
1.      Hydrocarbon Bases
2.      Absorption Bases
3.      Water Removable Bases
4.      Water-Soluble Bases

Hydrocarbon Bases: e.g. white petrolatum, white ointment

Also referred to as oleaginous bases, hydrocarbon bases are occlusive & emollient in nature.They are non-water washable, hydrophobic & greasy,thus increase skin hydration by  reducing the rate of loss of surface moisture.

Hydrocarbon bases are usually petrolatum per se or petrolatum modified by waxes or liquid petrolatum to change viscosity charcteristics.Petrolatum has a high degree of compatibility with a variety of medicaments and provide optimum stability such as antibiotics.

Absorption Bases: e.g. Lanolin, Cold cream

Absorption bases are hydrophilic, anhydrous materials that have the ability to absorb additional water.They may be anhydrous or W/O emulsions.They are emollient & occlusive as well.

 Water-Removable Bases: e.g. Hydrophilic ointments

They are the most commonly used type of bases being water washable & miscible.These bases contain O/W emulsifiers which may be anionic, cationic or non-ionic in nature.

Water-Soluble Bases: e.g. Polyethylene glycol ointment

These are water miscible bases ,developed from polyethylene glycols. They are non-occlusive & non-greasy which are easily removed by washing.They mix readily with the skin secretions.

Preparation of ointments

Ointment preparation and manufacture depends upon the type of vehicle and the quantity to be prepared. The objective is the same I.e. to disperse a finely subdivided or dissolved drug throughout the vehicle.Normally the drug material is finely powdered before being dispersed.

Industrial Processing

Pilot-plant or small-scale production equipment is essential in developing a manufacturing procedure for a production-size batch.Mixing and stirring operations are critical in ointment production . In laboratory mixing, aeration can easily be prevented and also there is good maneuverability and control of the mixing action.These problems occur in the large scale industry manufacturing if semisolids where high speed agitation can cause aeration of the product n slowing the speed may not provide a satisfactory dosage form.

Methods & Machines used

Incorporation by Levigation

Small quantities such as 1 to several oz. Can be prepared by using spatula and ointment tile.The finely powdered drug is levigated thoroughly with a small quantity of base to form a concentrate.this concentrate is diluted geometrically with the remainder of the base.If the medicament is water soluble it is first dissolved in water & then incorporated into the base. But large quantities cannot be prepared by employing ointment tile & spatula. Mechanical mixers are used in large scale production of ointments which include Hobart mixers, Pony mixers & other types.

-The drug substance is finely divided.
-It is then added slowly or sifted into the base/vehicle which is present in a rotating mixer.
-Ointment is mixed until it reaches uniformity.
-The finished product may then be processed through a roller mill to ensure complete dispersion & reduce any aggregates.

The above mentioned procedure may be modified by preparing and milling a concentrate of the drug in a portion of the base.This concentrate is then dispersed in the balance of the vehicle, using a mixer of desirable size.Occasionally the base may be melted for easier handling and dispersion.the base us slowly cooled and continuous agitation is done to maintain dispersion.
Hobart Mixer For Pharmaceutical Ointments

Pony mixer for Pharmaceutical Ointments

Triple Roller Mill For Pharmaceutical Ointments

Packaging and Labeling

Ointments are either packed in ointment jars or collapsible metal or plastic tubes of appropriate size.

Ointment Jars

usually available in a size of 50-500 g. Straight sided screw-cap jars of glass or plastic are available. Clear amber or opaque glass is used as well as white opaque plastic,usually high density polyethylene.tops are usually metal or plastic. Inner liners of paper or plastic are laminated or disc-glued to ensure dust and air-tight enclosure.
Ointments are either mechanically or hand-filled to somewhat a little less capacity to avoid contact with the cap and cap-liner.

Ointment Tubes

Tubes used are made up of aluminum ,tin or plastic (polyethylene, polypropylene).They have obvious advantage over jars as the use of finger is minimized and contact with dust light and air is limited.
A number of factors must be considered while selecting the appropriate material for ointment tube. Metal tubes present a possibility of metal-ion catalyzed instability while plastic tubes become stained by migration of color from the dosage form into the plastic side walls of the tube.The suitability of ointment containers should be verified by adequate testing prior to use.

In industries, ointment filling is accomplished by using automatic equipment that air cleans the tubes ,fills, folds and crimps the end in one continuous operation.Plastic tubes are being more frequently used in industries. They are handled much like metal tubes except for the end step which involves heat sealing instead of folding the end.

Labeling of ointment containers

It is good practice to dispense the tube in a vial or hinged paste-box of proper size.It will not only carry the tube but also serve to carry the label.In industries labeling may be silk screened onto the plastic surfaces.Expiation dates and code lot numbers may be stamped on as a part of the tube-crimping procedure.

Saturday, 11 February 2017

Thermogravitometric Analysis TGA

 “A technique in which the mass of a substance is measured as a function of temperature, while the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.”

Controlled temperature programme” can meanheating and/or cooling at a linear rate (by far commonest)


Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measures weight changes in a material as a function of temperature (or time) under a controlled atmosphere. Its principle uses include measurement of a material’s thermal stability, filler content in polymers, moisture and solvent content, and the percent composition of components in a compound.

The measured weight loss curve gives information on

• Changes in sample composition
• Thermal stability
• Kinetic parameters for chemical reactions in the sample

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) basics

·         Test method capable of measuring the mass evolution of a milligram-scale sample.
·         Gas atmosphere is well defined at all times during the experiment.
·         The atmospheric temperature is well-defined and follows a pre-defined program.

Data collected from TGA

·         Mass of sample with respect to Time/Temperature.
·         Properties/Parameters Determined from Data:
·         Heterogeneous Reaction/Thermal Degradation Kinetics,
·         Temperature Range for Pyrolysis

Principle of Analysis

The schematic principle of the TGA measurement is shown in Figure 1. The sample is heated under nitrogen or synthetic air with constant heat rate while the difference of the mass during this process is measured. A mass loss indicates that a degradation of the measured substance takes place. The reaction with oxygen from the synthetic air for example could lead to an increase of mass.

For example:        

The TGA curve of two differently cured epoxy resins is shown in Figure 2 and can be used to get first information about the thermal stability of those systems. Other applications in our group are measurements to get the silver content in composite material.

Instrumentation of Thermogravimetry:

TG curves are recorded using a Thermobalance. It consists of:
·         electronic microbalance
·         furnace
·         temperature programmer
·         recorder (instrument connected to thermobalance to record the output/curves

Micro balance:

It is the most important component of thermo balance. A microbalance is used to record a change in mass of sample/substance. There are different types of microbalances viz. beam, spring, cantilever and torsion balances.

Sample Holder or Crucible:

The sample to be studied is placed in sample holder or crucible. It is attached to the weighing arm of microbalance. There are different varieties of crucibles used. Some differ in shape and size while some differ in materials used.

Furnace (Heater/Boiler/Oven):

The furnace should be designed in such a way that it produces a linear heating range. The temperature ranges can affect the internal atmosphere of furnace chamber; therefore, it is necessary to choose specific type of furnace according to temperature ranges.

Temperature Measurement:

It is done with the help of thermocouple. Different materials are used for measuring different ranges of temperatures

Heating Rate:

The heating rate is the rate of temperature increase, which is customarily quoted in degrees per minute (on the Celsius or Kelvin scales). The heating or cooling rate is said to be constant when the temperature/time curve is linear

Data Recording Unit:

The output from the microbalance and furnace are recorded using either chart recorder or a microcomputer (work station). The advantage of microcomputer over chart recorder is that the microcomputer comes with such software which allows data to be saved and plotted while performing mathematical problems.

Recording Of Result:

·         Results are displayed by a plot of mass change versus temperature or time and are known as Thermo gravimetric curves or TG curves.
·         TG curves are normally plotted with the mass change (Dm) in percentage on the y-axis and temperature (T) or time (t) on the x-axis. A typical TG curve has been shown (Figure).
·         There are two temperatures in the reaction, T(procedural decomposition temp.) and Tf(final temp.) representing the lowest temperature at which the onset of a mass change is seen and the lowest temperature at which the process has been completed respectively.

Operational Procedure

·         Conduct baseline experiment with empty sample crucible along a pre-defined temperature program in a well-defined gas atmosphere.
·         Prepare sample crucible by evenly packing sample material into crucible and measure mass of entire crucible.
·         Conduct experiment with sample along the same temperature program in the same gas atmosphere as in the baseline experiment.
·         Allow furnace to cool and clean the sample crucible used in experiment.


·         Temperature
·         Heating Rate
·         Sample Size


 Only provides meaningful data when a change in mass occurs.
·         Some liquids can be measured, but this is generally very difficult to do.
·         Very small samples are used, so non-homogeneous materials generally cannot be tested

Types of TGA

There are three types of thermogravimetry:

1. Dynamic TGA: In this type of analysis, the sample is subjected to condition of continuous increase in temperature usually linear with time.

2. Isothermal or Static TGA: In this type of analysis, sample is maintained at a constant temperature for a period of time during which change in weight is recorded.

3. Quasistatic TGA: In this technique sample is heated to a constant weight at each of a series of increasing temperature.


Principle uses of TGA include measurement of a material’s thermal stability and its composition.  Typical applications include:
§  Filler content of polymer resins
§  Residual solvent content
§  Carbon black content
§  Decomposition temperature
§  Moisture content of organic and inorganic materials
§  Plasticizer content of polymers
§  Oxidative stability
§  Performance of stabilizersLow molecular weight monomers in polymers